Non-Exhaust Vehicle Emissions

As exhaust emissions from engine tailpipe have been decreasing in recent years through development of engines and exhaust after-treatment systems, non-exhaust emissions have become a major contributor to total particle emissions from vehicles. Numerous studies have shown that non-exhaust emissions can equal or even exceed those from the exhaust, and we have a measurement system for both types of emissions.

What are non-exhaust emissions?

Non-exhaust emissions consist of brake, tyre and blow-by gas emissions. Particles are formed in the brakes through different mechanisms and contain particles of various sizes. Tyre wear particle emissions are formed in the interaction of tyres and roads but they can also be formed via evaporation due to heating of the tyres. Blow-by gas is formed when gases from the combustion chamber leak past the piston rings into the crankcase and combine with the oil vapor in the crankcase. All these formation mechanisms not only contribute to the overall vehicle emissions, but they can also have a significant effect on the operation of the brakes, tyres and the engine.

Dekati® provides complete measurement solutions for brake wear, blow-by gas and tyre wear emission measurements and we can cover the complete particle size using only one measurement method (6 nm – 10 µm) with one measurement method. No matter what non-exhaust emissions needs to be measured, we have the perfect solutions for it.

Dekati® Solutions

  • Single measurement principle both for advanced studies and routine testing
  • Real-time particle number, LDSA, mass for different sized particles
  • Real-time particle size distribution in non-exhaust emissions
  • Total gravimetric mass in non-exhaust emissions
  • Gravimetric particle size distribution
  • Chemical/elemental analysis for size classified particles
  • Aerodynamic diameter measurement
  • Field condition instruments provided with up to 5 year warranty

 

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Brake Dust Measurement Solutions

 

Particle emissions from brakes not only affect air quality and human health but can also have effect on operation and safety of the brakes themselves. Braking is a very dynamic and fast process with many contributing factors such as duration and force of the braking which both have effect on heat generation and therefore temperature of the brakes. All these factors influence the size and concentration of the emitted particles, causing brake emissions. Mechanical abrasion generates mostly micron-sized (typically > 1μm) particles but emissions typically also include nucleation particles from volatile matter, typically 10 – 200 nm. Since the particle emissions from the brake wear are formed through different mechanisms and contain particles of various sizes, an instrument with a very wide particle size range is needed to accurately characterize these emissions.

Dekati has over 25 year of experience in providing high quality instrumentation for brake particle measurements. Our brake emission measurement solutions include both particle detection and dilution systems, and today we have solutions for both for research and routine monitoring of brake emissions from 6 nm up to 10 μm.

Dekati® Measurement Solutions for brake wear emission measurements

  • Real-time measurement of total concentration and detailed particle size distribution
  • Particle number, mass and LDSA concentration measurements
  • On board and laboratory measurement instruments
  • Option for chemical characterization of size classified particles

Brake Emission Measurement

Tyre Wear Particle Measurements

Tyre wear emission measurements have gained importance during recent years as they can have a significant impact on not only the environment but also performance of the tyres and therefore the vehicle. Particles are formed in the interaction of tyres and roads but can also be formed via evaporation due to heating of the tyres. Due to different particle formation processes, tyres emit particles on a broad size spectrum from a few nanometers up to a few micrometers. Since the particle emissions from the tyre wear are formed through different mechanisms and contain particles of various sizes, an instrument with a very wide particle size range is needed to accurately characterize these emissions. Dekati’s tyre wear emission measurement solutions include both real-time and gravimetric particle measurement systems. We have solutions for both for research and routine monitoring of tyre wear emissions from 6 nm up to 10 μm.

Dekati® Measurement Solutions for tyre wear emission measurements

  • Real-time measurement of total concentration and detailed particle size distribution
  • Particle number, mass and LDSA concentration measurements
  • On board and laboratory measurement instruments
  • Option for chemical characterization of size classified particles
 

Blow-by Gas Emission Measurements

Blow-by gas is formed when gases from the combustion chamber leak past the piston rings into the crankcase. After combining with the oil vapor in the crankcase, the blow by gas consists mainly of oil droplets and may contrib-ute significantly to the loss of lubricating oil and fouling of engine surfaces. Ventilation systems are used to release this gas from the crankcase either back to the engine air intake or to the atmosphere through a filter. Without a properly functioning ventilation and/or filtration system, the blow-by gases may contribute significantly to the overall PM emissions of the vehicle. The size of blow-by gas particles is typically larger than in tailpipe emissions and it varies depending on the type of engine, crankcase ventilation system, engine wear and operating conditions.

Dekati® Solutions for Blow-by emission measurements

  • Real-time and gravimetric PM size distribution measurements
  • Total concentration and detailed size distribution measurements 6nm – 10 µm
  • Options for direct high-temperature measurement or measurement with a dilution system
  • Complete setups available for a range of measurement conditions
  • Measured PM result always independent of PM optical properties
 

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